Monday, March 26, 2012


The literally meaning of the census to count every individual unit in a well defines territory at a moment of time and records some vital event of every individual. According to U.N. “census of human population is defined as the total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining to all person at a specified time or times in a country or de-limited territory”. U.N. has listed four essential features of population censuses.

1.       Each individual is too enumerated separately and the characteristics of each person are recorded separated.
2.       The census covers precisely defined territory and includes every person present and reseeding with in its scope.
3.       The population is enumerated with respect to a well defined point of time and data are prepared in terms of well defined references period.
4.       The census must be taking at regular interval.

A census is prim alary an official enumeration through direct visitation of all persons either physically present or regular reciting in a country or any of its division. The enumeration includes the collection of various data concerning the person enumerated, such as sex, age, marital status etc. however, there may be special census for specific purposes for example occupation, employment, education etc.


There are some characteristics of an ideal census which are given as follows:

·         UNIVERSAL - An ideal census must be universal in character it mean there should be information about every citizen of a country.

·         POINT OF TIME - All information relating to population should be connected with reference to a particular point of time otherwise different magnitude can not be compared.

·         AREA - Census should be conducted in a well define state or country.

·         AFTER A DEFINITE PERIOD - Census should be undertaken after a definite interval or period of time. It is generally conducted after 10 years and called “Decennial Census” and in some countries censuses is conducted after 5 years and known as “Quinquennial Census” by government.

·         UNDER LEGAL GOVERNMENT - Census is always to be carried out by legal government and not by any private agency under specific legal cover.

·         SECRET AND CONFIDENCIAL - In a census complete information about individuals should be collected and must be kept secret and confidential. All information of total population be complied together and totally be disseminated through propagation and publication.

·         UNIVERSE IS UNITED - In a census the entire universe is united their by possibility of any sampling error and biased are not arrived. However presence of non sampling error can not be ruled out. 
      Some of the non sampling error which are present in census.
a.       Coverage
b.      Content (response and record)
c.       Measurement (education, age)
d.      Compilation, processing and printing.

In census as the data collected in mass therefore there is every possibility of extremes being neutralized However, census data has to be kept comparable and compactable in time places, quantities, units and formats.


History of census count data back to be great civilization of Baby Leonia in 3800 BC, china in 3000 BC and Egypt in 2500 BC and Greek and Roman period. However record of these counts is not press able, only few results survive which indicates the counting of population was made in those civilizations.
Most of these counts are population like the English the doomsday inquest of 1086 were partial encourage because of rather limited use to which these data were put. Generally they were limited to land holders and head of household or males of military age or tax pears and work for military labor and tax purposes.
Modern censuses begin with the enumeration of population in Quebec in 1666. The periodic census as a regular function of government dates from 1790 in USA, 1801 in England and 1871 in Canada. During 1950-1953 census of population were conducted in 41 sovereign countries and also in a large number of non sovereign countries it included about (3/5)th of the total population of the world. In 1963 about 192 countries of the world conducted census. Nowadays there are only 11 countries (6 in Africa, 5 in Asia) with a population exceeding 5000 people have not conducted census so far.

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